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Dubovk mushroom has a few more names. They call him a dupe, dupe, deaf boletus, dirty brown. Although the mushroom is less well known than boletus or thistle, it is not inferior in nutritional value.
General characteristics of the oak
The mushroom, which is on the list of useful representatives of the mushroom kingdom, belongs to the species of Borovikov. Due to their external resemblance to ceps, inexperienced mushroom pickers often confuse them. The diameter of the large fleshy cap reaches 20 cm. Young individuals are characterized by a hemispherical shape. As they grow older, the hat becomes pillow-shaped.
When there is no rain, the surface layer of the hat is velvety, like suede. When wet, it becomes sticky. The surface color is olive brown or yellow-brown, and the tubular layer is olive green. The shape of the thick pedicle is cylindrical, slightly thickened at the base. If you put pressure on the pulp, it will acquire a blue color. In view of this feature, the mushroom was nicknamed a bruise.
On the edibility of the oak trees
The fruit body of the mushroom has a fleshy flesh and a delicate aroma. For culinary purposes it is used for marinade and pickling. It is very popular among gourmets. Mushrooms are fried with the addition of various creamy sauces.
Dubovik can be used as a main dish, a side dish, added to soups and broths. The advantage of this product is that heat treatment does not deprive its beneficial properties. In addition, the fruits are almost not boiled, retaining their shape, which gives the dish a noble appearance. For long-term storage of mushrooms, they need to be dried or frozen, but previously boiled in salted water.
Borovik body contains toxic compoundsthat are destroyed by heat treatment. In the event that the product is not sufficiently cooked, an intestinal upset will occur.
Varieties of Dubovky
Where grow oak mushrooms
Mushrooms spread throughout forests and groves, and mycorrhiza forms not only under the oak, but also under other deciduous trees (beech, birch, linden) and conifers (spruce, fir).
Most often, oak tree is found in an oak forest with calcareous soil. He loves marshy and bright areas that are warmed up by the sun. Fruiting begins in May and lasts until mid-autumn. The peak comes at the end of summer.
Since the oak tree is thermophilic, it almost does not settle in regions where unstable spring-summer weather is observed.
Types of Oaks
Duboviks are bright and powerful representatives of the mushroom kingdom in forest oak forests and deciduous mixed forests. What species are the main ones?
Olive brown oak
It can grow both singly and form small colonies. A massive hat is the main part of the fetus. Its diameter reaches 20 cm. The skin color is from dark to greenish-brown. The flesh of a lemon-yellow tone upon contact with air changes its color to blue, and the red-brown tubular layer turns green.
The convex-cylindrical leg of an elastic structure with a 3-cm thickness grows to 15 cm in length. At the junction with the cap is much thinner. The bottom is reddish-brown, and the top is yellow-orange with a bright brownish-red mesh.
Ripe mushroom has a hat, not exceeding 20 cm, the velvety skin of which becomes naked during growth. The color of the surface is from chestnut to black-brown. Sometimes there is an olive or pale red tint. When pressed, a dark spot remains.
The color of the flesh of the cap can be rich yellow or slightly yellow. At the break point it turns blue-green. The inside of the leg has a reddish or brownish tint. The shape resembles a tuber. On the surface there is a speck or flakes of red on a yellow-red background.
The fruit body is characterized by an olive-brown or light yellow hat, reaching 25 cm. From a beautiful semicircular shape at a young age, when the fruit grows, it is converted into a massive hat with a central tubercle. On the lower side it is painted in orange-brick color. In young individuals, the structure is dull, in adults, spongy with a red-brick color. When pressed, it changes color to blue.
The length of the yellowish barrel-shaped stalk is up to 16 cm. Reddish streaks are observed over the entire surface, darkening as the fungus grows older. Red tones predominate in the lower part. The yellowish flesh exudes a faint aroma.
The convex cap is up to 15 cm in diameter. The color of the surface layer is brown or with a yellowish admixture. On rainy days it turns from velvety to sticky.
A massive leg, the thickness of which reaches 5 cm, is swollen near the base. It has a yellowish color or purplish red without a mesh pattern. White traces of mycelium are visible at the bottom. When pressed on any part of the fetus, a bluish mark remains.
Where do the oak trees grow
How to distinguish edible oaks from dangerous doubles
Going into the forest, you need to know the distinguishing features of edible mushrooms from poisonous representatives, especially from doubles. Dubovik has a very similar congener, which is called a satanic mushroom, which is forbidden for eating. Despite the apparent similarity in appearance, still There are significant differences:
- The edible representative has a dark brown or reddish hat in contrast to the light dirty yellow color of the poisonous specimen;
- The flesh of yellow color in contact with air changes color, becoming blue. The grayish flesh of the satanic mushroom at the fracture site first turns red and then blue. In this case, the fetus exudes an unpleasant odor.
- The surface of the stem is yellow. The fruit body of the poisonous mushroom has a different color: the middle is dirty red, the edges are yellow. Moreover, on the entire surface there is a dark red mesh.
Knowing the main differences of mushrooms, you can safely go on a quiet hunt. Nevertheless, experienced mushroom pickers recommend not picking the mushroom if there are doubts about its edibility.
Primary processing and cooking options for oak trees
First of all, a fresh crop must be boiled in salted water for 10 minutes. Then strain the mushrooms, rinse in clean water, add water again and put on fire. After 20 minutes, the mushrooms should be removed. This process of processing mushrooms is very important because it allows you to remove toxic substances from the fruit. In case of violation of the rules, an hour after eating undercooked mushrooms, a person begins to manifest symptoms of poisoning.
To pickle mushrooms, you need to prepare a marinade based on 200 ml of water: garlic (3 cloves), bay leaf, black pepper (5 peas), dill branches, cloves, 1 tablespoon of sugar and the same amount of sea salt. Boil water with the addition of all ingredients for 5 minutes. Next, 1 kg of oak trees is laid out in the container, and the composition boils for another 5 minutes. After this, the mushrooms should be laid out in jars, add vinegar on top and carefully cork.
To cook potatoes with mushrooms, prepared fruits need to be fried with onions and combine with finely chopped potatoes. Then pour all the sour cream and place in the oven. For taste, you can sprinkle with spices and chopped garlic.
How to distinguish boletus from satanic mushroom
It’s easy to make mushroom soup. Boil the product (500 g) for 30 minutes with the addition of spices in 2 l of water. Fry chopped carrots with onions until golden brown. Add diced potatoes to the mushroom broth, then fried vegetables and salt. Serve with greens and sour cream. If desired, potatoes are replaced with pasta or cereals.
The composition of the cudgel includes elements that are useful for the body, which improve coordination of movements and mental activity. Restrictions on use exist only in people suffering from allergic reactions to chemical compounds of the product, as well as individual intolerance.