Bee farming is a branch of agriculture that has been actively developing in recent decades. In today's world, beekeepers can choose between a variety of insect breeds. Carpathian is a type of honey bee that is bred in many countries.
Description of the Carpathian breed
Carpathian bees owe their name to the Carpathian mountain range, which is located in Eastern Europe. Karpatka is successfully grown on the territory of Ukraine, Russia, Czech Republic, Slovakia. The first description of Carpathian bees was made in the middle of the 20th century. The Carpathian population was found on the territory of the European highlands. Beekeepers kept it and began to breed it in different countries. Scientists from Korea and China are engaged in the selection of this species. This interest in the Carpathian bees can be explained by their versatility: they are able to survive in regions with different climatic conditions.
Physical characteristics of the species:
- painted gray with silvery tints;
- the average size of the proboscis is 6 mm, in some Carpathians it reaches 7 mm;
- the length of the wings is about 10 mm;
- at birth, the individual weighs 110 mg;
- the wing index, or cubital index, of the Carpathians reaches 2.6;
- body width along the abdomen is 4.5 mm.
Description of the uterus carpathian
A Carpathian bee is a female of a particular bee colony. Its main function is to lay eggs, from which new queens, workers or drones develop in the future. The appearance of the uterus is different from that of the worker. The queen bee has a weight of more than 200 mg, can reach up to 230 mg. The color of the uterus can range from black to bright burgundy. The queen lives in the hive for 3 to 5 years, but if her working capacity decreases, beekeepers can replace her artificially after 1 or 2 years of work.
Bees of the Carpathian breed have a sting, the use of which is used against other uterine individuals of the bee colony. The queen bee has well-developed jaw glands, which secrete a special fluid that is distributed throughout the body. Workers lick it off and distribute it throughout the nest. This liquid tends to inhibit the ability of other female bees to lay eggs.
For a long period, the queen bee feeds on milk, which is brought to her by the worker bees. Before flying out, she begins to consume honey, while her weight decreases, and she becomes able to fly out of the hive. Her flight aims at alternating mating with multiple drone partners. At the same time, insects avoid inbreeding, which allows them to preserve the population and prevent homogamy.
The uterus lays 1800 eggs in one day, after artificial interventions, the figure can increase to 3000.
Features of carpathian bees
Carpathian bee is popular with experienced beekeepers. This is explained by the description of the breed:
- insects are capable of flying in any weather;
- the work of Carpathian bees begins in early spring;
- the average family collects 50 to 80 kg of honey;
- high growth rates of the bee colony;
- the ability to collect honey from any plants;
- willingness to work indoors;
- low swarming rates;
- high rates of adaptation.
How bees of this breed behave
According to the reviews of those who breed bees in different regions, the Carpathian is one of the most peaceful species. When inspecting the hive and moving the frames, insects do not move on them and calmly wait for the end of the inspection. Scientific data confirm that only about 5% of all bee colonies of the Carpathian breed are subject to swarming. A competent, experienced beekeeper can stop the swarming process in a timely manner.
How wintering is carried
Frost resistance of Carpathian bees is considered average. But due to the increase in the size of the family, as well as the early first flight, these indicators are almost not taken into account. For this breed, it is important to maintain an optimal moisture level in the hive in winter; it is recommended to bring carpathian bees into the winter house after the subzero temperature is established. Strong families of the Carpathian breed can tolerate wintering in hives insulated in the wild.
Can a carpathian bee winter outdoors in the northwest region
The northwestern region is characterized by low precipitation and an increased duration of the winter period. There are two wintering options for bees:
- Wintering in a warm room.
- Wintering in a warmed hive in the wild.
Beekeepers of the northwestern region recommend leaving strong families of the Carpathian breed in the wild, while the volume of forage honey should be increased: for 1 family, it is necessary to stock 25-30 kg of a flower variety.
Insects have good indicators of resistance to various infections. In Carpathians, nosematosis, varroatosis, and acarapidosis are rare. Carpathians are among the leaders of bee breeds that have stable immunity.
Recommended breeding regions
Carpathian bees are recommended for breeding in the southern regions, on the territory of the European part of the country. Despite the opinion of beekeepers about the thermophilicity of the Carpathian bee, it is successfully bred in Siberia and the Trans-Baikal Territory. This is due to the ability of Carpathians to adapt to new conditions of detention. In addition, it is well transported, bee colonies have almost no losses after delivery by land transport.
Carpathian bees are especially popular in Belarus, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and in Eastern Europe.
The peculiarity of the Carpathian breed is considered to be the collection of honey from different types of plants. Due to the early first flight and the ability to collect nectar from blooming honey plants, strong colonies produce about 80 kg of honey per season. The honey extracted by the Carpathian bees has a memorable taste, there are almost no impurities in it.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Among the main advantages of the species are efficiency, resistance to infection, calm disposition. But the carpathian also has its drawbacks, which have to be taken into account when purchasing individuals.
The disadvantages of the breed include:
- a tendency to theft (bees fly into the territory of other hives, carry away honey);
- a limited amount of propolis in the hives (insects are not inclined to produce propolis in sufficient quantities, this mechanism increases the consumption of wax);
- ignoring the wax moth (carpathians do not fight the parasite, they allow it to destroy honey reserves);
- manifestation of aggression in areas with low night temperatures (such observations are shared by beekeepers who keep bees in Siberia and the Urals).
Carpathian uterus has high fertility rates; in spring, bee colonies increase several times. The laying of eggs of the uterus is carried out carefully, in a special order, almost without gaps.
When the queen bee dies, another one takes its place. In one hive, 2 females can exist for several months, beekeepers call this phenomenon "quiet change".
Breeding carpathians begins with the acquisition of complete bee packages. Insects quickly adapt, create a nest and store food. Packages are purchased in the spring, for 1 year the costs can be fully recouped.
Complete bee packages contain:
- feed stock up to 3 kg;
- about 15 thousand working insects;
- a young uterus.
Bee packages are recommended to be purchased from producers with a proven reputation and good reviews, in order to exclude the spring pomor of mixed-type individuals.
Carpathian bees are suitable for breeding for novice beekeepers, and subject to the basic rules for caring, the bees ensure the production of tasty honey, characterized by slow crystallization.
- To combat the wax moth, to which the Carpathians show surprising indifference, they use bunches of herbs: mint, wormwood, and wild rosemary. They are laid out around the hives: the smell scares away the pest and does not let him near the bees.
- If the hive is affected by wax moth, then to protect the nearby house, they dig a small trench around and fill it with water.
- To prevent possible swarming, they increase ventilation in the hive and prevent the flow of sun rays.
- Carpathian bees are suitable for keeping in personal plots due to their calm demeanor.
- For free wintering in regions with low temperatures, it is recommended to increase stocks of forage honey: up to 30 kg of product should be stored for a strong bee mixture.
Carpathian is a breed that is often called universal. With proper care, it can adapt to different living conditions and please with high productivity.
Poluyan Dmitry Ivanovich, 36 years old, Minusinsk
I have been breeding Carpathian bees for 10 years. I believe that this breed is fully suitable for Siberia. The bees are hardworking and tidy, they bring a lot of honey. The only disadvantage, which is called by colleagues, who, like me, contain carpathians, is a large supply of food for the winter.
Ivlev Gennady Nikolaevich, 56 years old, Krasnodar
The Carpathian breed is the best among bees. I used to keep an old Russian family, but over time I changed it completely. Carpathians are peaceful and thrifty. Early flight will increase prey. Bees come out of wintering strong and ready to work, collecting nectar from all nearby honey plants. I keep them on the site, next to the house and do not experience any problems.
Medvedev Yuri Nikolaevich, 44 years old, Ust-Kamenogorsk
I am a beekeeper with great experience, I have been dealing with bees since childhood. I discovered the Carpathian breed several years ago, now I am very pleased with it. The orderliness of life of Carpathian bees resembles exact flight schedules. They are disciplined, accurate, work in any weather. I do not use a smoker to check and inspect the frames, which I have never done before. Bees are not prone to aggression.