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In recent years, coccomycosis has been destroying cherry orchards throughout the former Soviet Union. But earlier this culture occupied 27% of fruit plantations and was second only to apple in number. The creation of new varieties resistant to fungal diseases is the main task of breeders. Cherry Morozovka, created at the end of the last century, rarely suffers from coccomycosis and can withstand frosts well.
The dessert cherry variety Morozovka was sent for State testing in 1988. Its author is T.V. Morozova, who works at the Institute of Horticulture. Michurin. The parent variety is Vladimirskaya ordinary cherry, the seedling of which has been treated with a chemical mutagen.
Description of culture
Freezer forms a small tree, which usually does not grow taller than 2.5 m. Raised strong branches form a wide crown of medium density. On the trunk and old shoots, the bark is light brown. Young branches are grayish green.
Serrated green leaves of cherry Morozovka are oval, strongly elongated, of medium size. The petiole is long, anthocyanin-colored.
White flowers are large, with rounded petals. Morozovka, like the parent variety Vladimirskaya, belongs to griots - cherries with dark red berries, pulp and juice. Fruit weight - about 5 g, taste - dessert, sweet, with barely perceptible sourness. The shape of the berry is round, the abdominal suture is hardly noticeable, the integumentary points are absent. The flesh of the Morozovka cherries is dense, with a lot of juice. Medium oval seed, it separates well from the berry. Most of the fruits are tied on bouquet branches, much less - on an annual growth.
Cherry Morozovka is successfully grown in the North-West, Central, Lower Volga, Middle Volga, North Caucasus and Central Black Earth regions.
Brief characteristic of the variety
Morozovka is considered one of the best varieties of domestic selection of cherries. Delicious berries, high resistance to unfavorable growing conditions and diseases make it a crop suitable for keeping in farms and private gardens.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
You can water Frosty, even in hot summer, several times per season - the variety has a high drought resistance. High winter hardiness allows it to be grown in areas with a temperate and cool climate. According to gardeners' reviews about the Morozovka cherry, flower buds can freeze only in the north of the Chernozem region. Wood, on the other hand, can withstand low temperatures well.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Cherry blossoms Morozovka in medium terms. This allows in most regions to get away from late frosts and wait for the emergence of bees and other pollinating insects. Harvesting of Morozovka cherries begins in the second half of July.
The best pollinators are Griot Michurinsky, Zhukovskaya, Lebedyanskaya. Cherry Morozovka is self-fertile, without other varieties it will tie only 5% of the possible number of berries.
Freezing is early, it gives a crop for the 3-4th season after disembarkation. Berries appear on it annually, unless the flower buds freeze in the northern regions.
The fruits are distinguished by their dessert taste and high transportability. They are easily separated from the stalk; mechanized harvesting by shaking off is possible. Therefore, despite the conflicting reviews about the columnar cherry, it is convenient to grow Frosty in this form in large farms.
In Michurinsk, the variety gives a yield of 50-60 centners per hectare.
Scope of berries
Although Morozovka cherry in the VNIISPK catalog is classified as yielding fruits of universal purpose, their taste is sweet, the acid is weak, and the pulp is juicy and dense. It is often called dessert and is consumed fresh, leaving only the remnants of the harvest for processing.
Meanwhile, excellent jam is made from Morozovka, wines and juices are prepared. The technological qualities of the berries are excellent, and they are well transported.
Disease and pest resistance
According to gardeners' reviews about the Morozovka cherry, it has such a high resistance to coccomycosis that it rarely suffers from it even during the years of epiphytoties.
Reference! Epiphytotia or epiphytosis is a massive defeat of plants by diseases or pests, an analogue of an epidemic.
Resistance to insect attacks is average.
Advantages and disadvantages
If we consider the culture as a whole, then the characteristics of the Morozovka cherry variety can be called outstanding. The advantages include:
- High resistance to coccomycosis even in the years of mass destruction of cherries of other varieties.
- Stable yield.
- High drought tolerance.
- Excellent taste of berries.
- Morozovka is one of the most winter-hardy varieties of ordinary cherries.
- Medium tree size - easy to harvest.
- The ability to grow Frosty as a columnar culture.
- The average flowering time allows you to get a harvest in the northern regions.
- Possibility of mechanized harvesting of berries.
- The variety gives high yields even under unfavorable conditions.
- The stone is well separated from the pulp, which makes it easier to process the fruit.
The disadvantages of cherries Morozovka include:
- Self-infertility of the variety.
- In the north of the Chernozem zone, flower buds can freeze slightly in a harsh winter.
- The berries are weakly attached to the stalk. They can be harvested using vibrating harvesters, but cherries can also be crumbled from strong winds.
The Morozovka variety is planted in the same way as other cherries. It is important to choose the right place, neighbors and fill the soil with a large amount of organic matter.
Recommended timing and selection of a suitable location
In autumn, Morozovka cherries are planted only in the south. In other regions, this is done in early spring, without waiting for the buds to open. To make it easier to dig a planting hole, it is recommended to prepare it in the fall.
The landing site should be well lit. You can place the cherry on the south side of the fence or buildings. Better yet, plant the tree on a gentle slope. Soil waters should not lie closer than 2 m from the surface.
Important! The distance from the tree to the fence or wall must be at least three meters.
The preferred soils are black earth and light loam. Acidic soils must be deoxidized with lime or dolomite flour, sand is added to dense ones.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to cherries
Plant pollinating varieties or other stone fruits next to Morozovka cherries. The main thing is not to arrange trees so that their crowns are shaded.
Bushes with creeping, rapidly spreading roots - sea buckthorn, raspberries and blackberries, should not be placed next to cherries. Black currants will be a bad neighbor - cultures do not tolerate each other. Walnut, oak, birch, linden and maple will oppress cherries.
The trunk circle of a young tree must be kept clean and loosened regularly. When the cherry begins to bear fruit and takes root well, ground cover plants can be planted under it. They will protect the root from overheating and retain moisture.
Selection and preparation of planting material
You should not buy seedlings from your hands. Better to take them from nurseries or proven garden centers. Annual cherries about 80 cm high and biennial seedlings up to 1.1 m take root well. The bark should have a light brown color, and the root should be well developed.
Attention! The greenish tint of the trunk means that the wood has not matured, and the one and a half meter height signals excessive feeding.
Preparing cherries for planting consists in soaking for at least 3 hours. If you bought a tree with an open root system, not protected by a film or clay mash, dip it in water for a day, adding root or heteroauxin.
Prepare (preferably in autumn) a planting pit with a depth of at least 40 cm, a diameter of 60-80 cm. The cherry root system should be freely placed in it. Landing is carried out in the following sequence:
- Mix the top layer of earth with a bucket of humus and starter fertilizers (50 g each of superphosphate and potassium salt).
- Add sand or lime if necessary.
- Fasten a solid support to the side of the center of the hole to which the cherry will be tied.
- Place a seedling in the middle, fill in the root, constantly compacting the soil so that voids do not form. The distance of the neck from the ground should be 5-7 cm.
- Surround the trunk circle with a roller of soil.
- Pour 2-3 buckets of water under each root.
Follow-up care of the culture
In the first growing season, the cherry seedling is watered as the soil dries up, weeds are regularly loosened and weed out. When the tree takes root, they moisten the ground only in the absence of precipitation and in the fall during moisture charging.
Important! Do not water the cherries often and little by little. Do this no more than 2 times a month, even in hot dry weather, but pour at least 2-3 buckets of water under each root.
To prevent the fruits from cracking, the moistening is completed 2-3 weeks before harvesting.
The culture is very fond of dung. It is he and ash that are the best fertilizers for cherries. Mineral dressings are given, given that you need a lot of nitrogen and potassium, and much less phosphorus.
The Morozovka variety needs regular pruning - sanitary and forming a crown. Just do not forget that although the main fruiting occurs on bouquet branches, some of the fruits are tied on an annual growth. The columnar cherry Morozovka requires special attention when pruning.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Freezer has the highest resistance to typical cherry diseases, in particular, coccomycosis. For prevention, you can treat Morozovka with a copper-containing preparation along the green cone, and after leaf fall - with iron sulfate.
Pests are fought with insecticides.
Cherry varieties Morozovka are resistant to frost and drought. She rarely gets sick even with epiphytotics. If we add to this large juicy fruits with good taste and high commercial qualities, consistently high yields, then the variety becomes one of the best for growing in Russia.
Olga Sergeevna Kostromina, 50 years old, Tula
Our plot is small, only Zhukovka used to grow from cherries, it was pollinated by neighboring trees. Recently we bought several columnar seedlings of the Morozovka variety. They take up little space, in the third year they gave a glass of berries each. Everyone liked the taste, this year we are expecting a good harvest.
Pavel Kuzmich Barents, 67 years old, Kolomna
Cherry Morozovka has been growing for me for a long time, its berries are large and sweet. The harvest is good - and there is enough to eat, and we cook the jam. It never froze, because it grows under the protection of a barn and a fence. In spring, sometimes you have to burn smoke bombs, but only during recurrent frosts.