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Gingerbreads are a group of edible mushrooms that are rich in composition and excellent taste. They are usually harvested from coniferous forests, tall grass and clearings. Cultivation of saffron milk caps is also possible in the garden. There are features that are taken into account in the breeding process. The mycelium grows in a coniferous substrate. Mushrooms need warmth, high humidity and moderate light.
Is it possible to grow mushrooms in the country
Gingerbread is a lamellar mushroom that is used in cooking all over the world. It is characterized by the convex shape of the cap, which eventually becomes funnel-shaped. In young specimens, the edges are bent, but they gradually straighten. The leg is powerful, of the correct cylindrical shape.
In nature, there are various varieties: common mushroom, spruce, pine, Japanese, alpine. They all have different habitats, sizes and colors. The color of the cap is either pink-yellow or bright red. The stem color is usually lighter.
Important! Ryzhiks are rich in amino acids, mineral salts, vitamins, fiber and natural antibiotics.
In nature, mushrooms are found in coniferous forests. They prefer illuminated areas: forest edges, young forest, hills, pathsides. They develop best in sandy soil, grow in groups in the forests of the Central region of Russia, Siberia, the Urals and the Far East. They are harvested from June to October.
Conditions for growing saffron milk caps in the garden:
- light partial shade;
- good air circulation;
- moist acidified soil;
- lack of moisture stagnation.
Growing saffron milk caps at home is almost impossible. They need certain indicators of illumination, moisture, soil composition, which are as close to natural as possible. If some factors do not match, then the likelihood of obtaining a crop will be significantly reduced.
How to grow mushrooms in the garden
To grow mushrooms on the site, you need to complete a number of stages. First, they choose a suitable place for the mycelium and prepare it for planting. Then they buy or get their own mycelium. To obtain a good harvest, the plantings are cared for.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
To breed mushrooms in the garden, it should be properly prepared. Sunny places are not suitable for planting, as well as thick shade. The best option is to plant the mycelium next to a spruce or pine tree. The mycelium enters into symbiosis with conifers.
If pines or spruces do not grow nearby, it is recommended to prepare a coniferous bedding. For this, 2 cubic meters are dug out of the forest. m of soil together with fallen needles.
The composition of the soil is analyzed at the site. If the soil is neutral or alkaline, then it must be acidified. It is best to use coniferous litter or sawdust. In such a substrate, the cultivation of saffron milk caps will be most successful.
Planting mushrooms requires compost. Any ready-made soil for plants rich in peat will do. Mycelium will develop in it. Additionally, you will need moss, fallen leaves and needles from the forest.
For the cultivation of saffron milk caps, planting material is required. It is obtained in one of the following ways:
- collect mushrooms in the forest and subject them to processing;
- use purchased mycelium;
- transfer mycelium along with the top layer of soil.
To get mycelium on their own, old mushrooms are collected in the forest. The hats are cut from the legs, after which they are divided into small parts. The material is dried, after which they begin to plant. Soaking the caps in warm water with sugar will help speed up the germination of the mycelium. After a day, the mass is kneaded with hands and used for sowing.
The second way to grow mushrooms is to buy ready-made mycelium. There are ready-made substrates on sale that do not require special preparation. Usually the packaging is sufficient for planting next to one tree.
Immediately before planting, the material is soaked in the Baikal EM-1 growth stimulator. This will improve the germination of saffron milk caps by 40 - 70%.
For the successful cultivation of saffron milk caps, sowing is carried out from May to October. Mycelium is not planted in frozen soil: this will lead to its death. If frosts have recently passed, then it is better to postpone work until the earth warms up.
The order of planting saffron milk caps using prepared mycelium:
- Next to the selected ephedra, they carefully dig a hole of arbitrary shape. Its volume should be 2 - 3 liters. Try not to damage the roots of the tree. They retreat from the trunk by no more than 2 m.
- 1 liter of water is poured into the well. It is cleared of plants and stones.
- When the moisture is absorbed, the pit is 1/3 filled with compost: earth from a coniferous forest or ready-made soil.
- Then the mycelium purchased or obtained independently is placed.
- Compost is poured on top again.
- The landing site is sprayed with a spray bottle. Water consumption - 1 liter per hole.
- The soil around the mycelium is also moistened, but at least 1 bucket of water is poured out.
- Fallen leaves, coniferous litter, moss are poured on top.
A more laborious growing process is to use mycelium from the forest. In the area where mushrooms grow, they dig up a layer of earth measuring 30x30 cm to a depth of 25 cm. During the work, it is important not to damage the integrity of the soil.
Previously, a pit is prepared on the site, where the dug out mycelium is immediately transferred. Work is best done in the morning or evening. Then the soil is watered with rainwater. The land is transferred under the same trees under which it was in the forest.
The mushrooms thrive in high humidity conditions. On average, they are watered every week. If precipitation falls frequently, then additional moisture is not required. For each mycelium, take 3 liters of water. It is best to use rainwater. Do not allow the soil to dry out.
Gingerbreads grow in warm and humid weather. If a drought or cold snap is established, then humus up to 15 cm thick is poured onto the mycelium. The mulching layer retains moisture in the soil and serves as additional insulation.
In nature, mushrooms do without human intervention and do not require fertilization. This is due to the presence of symbiotic relationships in nature. When growing saffron milk caps in the country, they must be supplemented.
No minerals are used as fertilizers. Their excess negatively affects the growth of mycelium. It is best to use biological stimulants. They are a complex of bacteria that are safe for humans and the environment. As a result, a favorable ecosystem is created for the development of saffron milk caps.
Biostimulants are applied in the spring to activate mycelium growth. Use drugs Emistim, Biolan or Stimpo. The selected agent is diluted with water to obtain a solution of 1% concentration. They watered the place of planting of mushrooms. The biostimulant increases the yield of saffron milk caps, promotes the growth of mycelium, increases immunity, inhibits the development of mold and harmful fungus.
The treatments are stopped after the first mushrooms appear. Such a mycelium does not need additional feeding. Until the end of the planting season, water is regularly watered.
When growing mushrooms, the first harvest is obtained the next year. The fruiting period is 5-6 years. Mushrooms are harvested in June. These terms depend on weather conditions and preparations.
To extend the life of the mycelium, it is watered with a solution of the preparation Baikal EM-1. The product contains beneficial bacteria that stabilize the environment in which the mushrooms grow. The regeneration of mycelium cells and tissues also improves. With the help of the Baikal EM-1 stimulator, the fruiting of saffron milk caps is increased up to 8 years.
If the technology of growing camelina is observed, from 5 to 15 specimens are harvested from one tree per year. This is a small crop, but it is sufficient for personal needs. Therefore, these mushrooms are not suitable for growing on an industrial scale. Fruiting lasts until September.
Attention! On average, up to 2 kg of mushrooms are obtained from 15 g of mycelium.
Gingerbreads are removed when their cap takes on a funnel-shaped shape. Do not overripe fruit bodies. If you do not harvest on time, then the fruit bodies will become food for worms. The leg is carefully cut off at the base. At the same time, they try not to damage the mycelium.
Ryzhiks have a wide range of applications. They are used for pickling and salting for the winter. In cooking, they are boiled or fried in a pan. In this case, long-term processing is not required: it is enough to scald the fruit bodies with boiling water. They go well with other foods as a side dish or salad, can also be used as a layer of a casserole or cooked in pots.
Growing saffron milk caps on your site will allow you to harvest a good harvest of mushrooms. At the same time, it is imperative to provide a number of conditions that are as close to natural as possible. After choosing a site, they start planting. In the process of growing mushrooms require minimal care. Particular attention is paid to soil moisture.