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Oyster mushroom: photo and description, cultivation

Oyster mushroom: photo and description, cultivation


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Oyster mushroom is considered the most common and safest mushroom. It grows in the wild, and also lends itself to cultivation in personal plots with success. The fruiting body is rich in vitamins, useful substances, but there are contraindications for eating for a certain category of people.

Where does oyster mushroom grow

Up to thirty species of the popular mushroom are known, but about ten varieties of oyster mushrooms are grown on private plots and on an industrial scale. The popularity of fruit bodies is due to the safety of eating, good taste, and ease of cultivation.

Mushrooms growing in nature love old stumps, tree trunks

To successfully search for fruit bodies in the forest, you need to know where to look for them. In nature, the oyster mushroom grows on stumps and trunks of deciduous trees. Less common are species that take root on conifers. The steppe oyster mushroom is considered universal, capable of taking root in any area. The common fungus is a parasite.

Important! Experienced mushroom pickers value common wild oyster mushroom more than artificially grown. Forest fruit bodies are tastier, more aromatic.

More information about oyster mushroom can be found in the video:

Going on a "quiet hunt", you need to know about the existing varieties. Most often, the following types come across:

  1. Lemon oyster mushroom has a bright yellow color. Distributed in the Far East. In the wild, it is more often found on the elm tree. Hence came the second name - Ilm oyster mushroom. Houses can be grown on a substrate or a block of poplar, aspen, birch.

    Ilm species is distinguished by a yellow color of the cap and legs

  2. A horn-shaped species lives on the territory of deciduous forest plantations. Mushrooms love warm weather and grow from May to October. Often found on oaks, mountain ash, birch. With the onset of cold weather, it is useless to look for them.

    Horny species loves warmth

  3. The species of steppe oyster mushroom does not parasitize trees. Myceliums are formed on the roots of umbrella plants. Caps can grow up to 25 cm in diameter. Harvesting begins in spring. For fruit bodies of this species they go not to the forest, but to cattle pasture or wastelands, where umbrella plants grow.

    Oyster mushroom is large in size

  4. A feature of pulmonary oyster mushroom is the white color and the cap with drooping edges. Families grow in large groups on the trunks of old birches, beeches or oaks, they are not afraid of low temperatures.

    Oyster mushroom is easy to recognize by its white color

  5. Pink oyster mushroom grows in the forests of the Far East on the trunks of deciduous trees. It attracts with its bright pink color, but is poorly appreciated by mushroom pickers due to its low taste.

    Pink oyster mushroom has an unusual bright color

  6. The royal oyster mushroom grows on the ground. The mycelium itself originates on the roots of plants. The hats grow to a large size, are distinguished by excellent taste, the presence of a large amount of protein and other useful substances.

    Residents of warm regions begin to collect royal oyster mushrooms in March

It is enough for an experienced mushroom picker to find a fertile place once and visit it annually with the onset of the season.

What an oyster mushroom looks like

Oyster mushroom is considered the most unpretentious. Because of the shape of the cap, it is called an oyster cap. Outwardly, an ordinary fruiting body looks like an ear with a funnel. In the photo, oyster mushroom resembles a group of oysters stuck to a large stone. In nature, an ordinary mushroom grows on old trees starting to dry out, fallen trunks. The hat is covered with a smooth matte skin. In young common oyster mushroom, it is beige, eventually acquires a gray color. The cap of the old mushroom is dark gray. The family is large, it grows out of one mycelium. A multilevel bunch grows on the tree. Each common mushroom is tightly pressed against each other.

On a tree stump, oyster mushroom resembles a group of ears or oysters.

Important! Only young oyster mushrooms are suitable for food. The flesh of old mushrooms is edible, but too hard.

Is it possible to eat oyster mushroom

Common forest oyster mushroom, as well as grown at home on a substrate, is suitable for eating. The probability of getting poisoned is zero. An exception is the common oyster mushrooms collected in polluted places, near roads, industrial enterprises. You can poison yourself with artificially grown mushrooms, heavily poisoned with pesticides.

Mushroom taste

The taste of ordinary oyster mushroom is comparable to champignons, if it is skillfully cooked. Young bodies are soft, slightly elastic. The forest dwellers have a mushroom aroma. Artificially grown common oyster mushrooms are less aromatic, but similarly tasty when fried, pickled.

Benefits and harm to the body

An ordinary oyster mushroom grown in ecologically clean conditions accumulates a large complex of vitamins (B, C, E, PP, D2), amino acids and minerals. There is little fat. However, they help to reduce the level of cholesterol in the human blood. The available carbohydrates do not contribute to the deposition of fat, since they consist of 20% of easily digestible sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Polysaccharides that destroy tumors are of great benefit to the body. Oyster mushroom is considered low-calorie. Fruiting bodies can be safely consumed by people prone to overweight.

The pulp of ordinary forest and home-grown oyster mushrooms contains vitamins and nutrients

In case of inept use, even environmentally friendly ordinary oyster mushrooms can harm the body. The pulp of the fruit bodies contains chitin. The substance is not absorbed by the body. Chitin cannot be completely removed from mushrooms, but only partially by heat treatment. It is not recommended to give ordinary oyster mushrooms to children under the age of 5 years. For adolescents and seniors, include small amounts in the diet. For those allergic to spores, common oyster mushrooms are dangerous during collection.

Important! Without harm to the body, mushroom dishes can be eaten no more than two times during the week.

False doubles

The common mushroom grown at home from mycelium is safe. If the collection is carried out in the forest, then by mistake you can get on the doubles. Most often they are of two types:

  1. Orange forest oyster mushroom is recognized by its bright color, unusual for an edible mushroom. The fruit body is attached to the tree with a hat, that is, there is no leg. Young mushroom families give off a melon aroma. After full ripening, the smell of rotting cabbage appears.
  2. From June to November on dry wood you can find wolf saw-leaf. Cream or light brown caps grow sideways to the trunk of the tree. Red spots appear on old mushrooms. Sawwood gives off a pleasant mushroom aroma, but the pulp contains a lot of bitterness.

    There are two false doubles: orange oyster mushroom and wolf saw-leaf

Oyster mushroom doubles do not contain toxins. If taken accidentally, they will not cause death, but too bitter taste is unpleasant in the mouth.

Collection rules

When harvesting from a tree, the first important rule is not to pick up little-known mushrooms. It is difficult to confuse oyster mushrooms with other gifts of the forest, but it is better to play it safe. Common oyster mushrooms have a sturdy stem. When collecting in the forest, they can simply be twisted by means of wood hats. When growing on a substrate, it is optimal to cut the crop with a knife. Unscrewing it can damage the mycelium. In the forest, it is advisable not to collect wet fruit bodies, they quickly begin to rot.

In order not to damage the mycelium, it is better to cut the crop with a knife.

The harvest season lasts from spring to autumn. The exact time depends on the weather conditions in the region. With the artificial cultivation of common oyster mushroom, the crop can be harvested year-round, if there is a heated room.

Use

Young fruit bodies with a cap diameter of up to 7 cm are suitable for eating. Mushrooms are not peeled, but simply washed well with water to remove debris. After washing, the fruiting bodies are boiled, after which they are used for further cooking.

Important! Oyster mushroom independently grown or common forest belongs to mushrooms of the second and third categories. Fruit bodies are fried, stewed, marinated, sauces, pies and pizza fillings are prepared.

Growing oyster mushroom

To grow oyster mushroom on your site, you need a damp room. A cellar or a shed in a thicket of trees is perfect. Buy ready-made mycelium. It can be stored in the refrigerator for up to three months, but must not be frozen. It is important to know that about 3 kg of mushrooms will grow from 1 kg of mycelium. Here you need to calculate and plan the future harvest.

At home, oyster mushroom grows on a substrate loaded in plastic bags

A substrate is needed to plant the mycelium. Load it into plastic bags. Straw, hay, sawdust, crushed corn cobs, seed husks are suitable as a substrate. Before loading, the raw material must be boiled for 2 hours, left to cool. The water is drained. When squeezed by hand, the finished substrate should release a few drops of water.

The wet mass is loaded into bags. Mycelium is poured through each layer of substrate 5 cm thick. The bags are tied, placed on shelves, or hung. When the mycelium begins to germinate (after about 20 days), cuts are made on the bags in the right place with a knife. Fruit bodies will grow from these windows.

Before mycelium germination, the bags are kept in the dark. With the formation of fruit bodies, lighting is turned on around the clock. Inside the premises, a humidity of at least 80% is maintained, the air temperature is in the range of 18-22 ° C, ventilation is carried out.

Two waves of the crop are usually harvested from one dressing. Fruit bodies can germinate after the second harvest, but in small quantities. Usually mushroom pickers do not wait for the third wave of the harvest. The spent substrate is stored in a compost heap to obtain fertilizer.

Conclusion

Oyster mushroom can be grown from its substrate. To do this, half of the boiled wheat is loaded into a jar, pieces of mushrooms purchased at the nearest supermarket are added. The container is tightly closed with a lid. A few days later, the wheat will be overgrown with white moss, which is the very mycelium for planting.


Watch the video: GROWING OYSTER MUSHROOMS ON SAWDUST: But from which tree? (January 2023).

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