We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Planting a Japanese quince is not very difficult, but requires adherence to the rules. Before growing a crop in a summer cottage, you need to study the requirements for soil and conditions.
What quince to plant
Quince available for cultivation in summer cottages is represented by three main types:
- Common (Cydonia). Looks like a deciduous tree or tall shrub, has oval or rounded leaves, and produces single flowers. The cultivation of common quince is most widely practiced in Europe, South America, Africa and Australia.
Common quince is able to rise up to 4.5 m above the ground.
- Chinese (Pseudocydonia sinensis). It grows naturally in China and Japan, reaching a height of 10 m or more. It has a very dense crown, bears fruit with good nutritional qualities and a pronounced aroma.
Chinese quince tolerates frosts down to -15 ° C without shelter, but at lower temperatures freezes
- Japanese (Chaenomeles japonica). A short ornamental plant with curved shoots, a powerful stem root deep underground, and green leaves tapering to the base. It is found wild in China, Japan and Korea.
Japanese quince does not grow taller than 3 m
It is the Japanese quince henomeles that is most widely represented by decorative varieties. Its main advantage is its compact size and bright bloom.
The frost resistance of chaenomeles is about the same as that of other varieties, but it is easier to insulate it before the onset of cold weather. When planting and caring for a Chinese quince shrub, a gardener may be faced with the fact that a tall tree sensitively reacts to cold snaps, and it is completely impossible to cover it. With miniature chaenomeles, this problem does not arise, its flexible shoots can be easily bent to the ground.
Important! Japanese quince looks more attractive in garden design than tall species, it can be easily integrated into any landscape.
Quince growing conditions
Before planting chaenomeles in the garden, you need to study the photo of the Japanese quince, its frost resistance and the rules for growing and care. This will allow the culture to develop quickly and healthily.
Where to plant quince
In the country, it is better to plant quince of any type and variety in a well-lit area. The culture develops rather slowly, and when it is shady, it practically stops growing and, moreover, brings fewer buds.
When planting, it is worth thinking about wintering chaenomeles. It is advisable to locate the culture in a place where more snow accumulates in the cold months and there is almost no wind. This will reduce the risk of freezing of shrubs, which are sensitive to severe frosts.
Japanese chaenomeles prefers loamy and well-moistened, but light, slightly acidic soil. It grows well on soils rich in humus, calmly tolerates sandy loam and sod-podzolic areas. When planting and growing chaenomeles, care must be taken that an excess of lime does not arise in the ground, otherwise the culture may suffer from chlorosis.
Advice! The alkalized soil on the site can be treated with needles or high moor peat, as well as citric acid and colloidal sulfur.
The timing of planting Japanese quince in the ground depends on the climatic conditions. Basically, it is recommended to root the plant in the spring, after the soil warms up, but before the start of the active growing season.
In warm regions and the middle lane, you can carry out an autumn planting, it is carried out 3-4 weeks before the first frost. If you transfer a seedling to the ground too late, then it will not have time to adapt to a new place and will die with the onset of cold weather.
Is it possible to grow a quince from a stone
The easiest way to plant a grown seedling of Japanese chaenomeles. But if desired, bones can also be used to propagate the culture. They are extracted from ripe, healthy, large fruits without damage.
Whole quince seeds are selected for planting, which do not have whitish bloom and mold on the surface.
The seeds are washed and laid out on a sheet of paper for a day in a warm, well-lit place to dry. If the planting of the material is to be carried out in the spring, before that time the bones must be removed to the refrigerator for stratification. The latter should take about three months.
How to plant and grow Japanese quince seeds at home
The seed method of reproduction requires attention from the gardener. The procedure consists of several stages:
- The washed and dried seeds of ripe fruits are placed in a container with slightly moistened sand in the fall and put into the refrigerator for 2-3 months. After hardening at low temperatures, Japanese quince from seeds will grow more hardy to external conditions.
- In April, small plastic pots or a wide, but shallow wooden box are prepared for seeds. A soil mixture of sand, garden soil and peat is poured inside. The seeds are slightly buried in the ground and sprinkled on top with a layer of no more than 1 cm.
- A container or box with planting material is abundantly sprayed with a spray bottle to moisten the soil, and covered with glass or film. After that, the container is placed in a warm place with diffused lighting until shoots appear.
The first sprouts of Japanese quince should appear above the soil surface in three weeks. When two true leaves appear on each of them, it will be possible to dive the seedlings in separate containers.
It is better to breed low-value quince varieties with seeds, since unique characteristics may not persist
When planting with seeds, Japanese quince is transferred to the ground only in the second year, when the seedlings are properly strengthened. Plants need to be rooted in spring, early or late April, depending on the climate.
Important! Japanese quince, grown from seed, begins to bear fruit only after 3-4 years.
Planting and caring for Japanese quince outdoors
Both purchased seedlings and plants obtained from seeds are planted in the ground according to the same rules. But the algorithm is slightly different for spring and autumn rooting.
How to properly plant a Japanese quince on a plot in the fall
To plant a Japanese quince in the fall, you need to prepare a site for it in the spring. The algorithm looks like this:
- the selected place in the garden with the onset of heat is dug up and 20 g of potassium salt and 50 g of superphosphate per square meter are added;
- the preparation of a hole for planting quince begins two weeks before the transfer of the seedling to the ground - at the end of August or at the beginning of September, a hole is dug about 50 cm in depth and width;
- fall asleep at the bottom of the drainage layer;
- prepare a nutritious soil mixture from clay, garden soil, sand and peat;
- fertilize the soil with 150 g of superphosphate and 50 g of wood ash;
- half fill the hole with an earthen mixture and leave to settle.
A dry but cloudy autumn day is chosen for planting. A Japanese quince seedling is pre-soaked for a couple of hours, then dipped into a prepared hole and the roots are straightened. It is necessary to sprinkle the plant with the remains of the soil, lightly trample in a circle and immediately pour 20 liters of water.
Important! Since the Japanese quince gives long, but thin shoots, a peg is dug in next to it and the seedling is tied to the support with twine.
When planting several specimens of chaenomeles, you need to leave 1-1.5 m of space between them
A wet trunk circle is mulched with peat or humus. Before the onset of frost in mid or late October, another water-charging watering for the plant is required. Immediately before the cold weather, the trunk circle is covered with spruce branches and fallen leaves, and after the first snowfalls, a dense snowdrift is thrown over for insulation.
Planting Japanese quince in spring
For the spring planting of Japanese quince, the plot is also being prepared in advance. In the middle of the previous autumn, the soil in a selected corner of the garden is dug up and its composition is improved - acidified if necessary, and complex mineral fertilizers are applied.
After thawing of the soil in the spring, holes are dug 50 by 50 cm in width and depth, after which drainage from pebbles or broken brick is laid on the bottom. The pit is half filled with a mixture of sand, peat, compost and garden soil, and mineral fertilizers are added. When planting in spring, it is allowed to add not only superphosphate, but also potassium nitrate and fresh manure to the soil. This top dressing contains a lot of nitrogen and will contribute to the rapid growth of Japanese quince.
The seedling pre-soaked in water is dipped into the hole, the roots are straightened and covered with soil to the end. The neck of the plant is left flush with the ground. The near-trunk circle is immediately watered abundantly and mulched with a layer of sawdust; for even growth, the seedling is tied to a support peg.
So that weeds do not grow at the roots of the quince, the near-stem circle can be sprinkled with small pebbles
Attention! In order for chaenomeles to take root in spring faster, after planting its branches are cut by 1/3.
How to care for quince
The technology of growing quince after planting comes down to a few simple procedures:
- Watering. It is necessary to moisten the culture once a month with 30-40 liters of water, provided that there has been no natural precipitation for a long time. The plant does not tolerate drought well, but it also reacts negatively to boggy. It is imperative to water the chaenomeles before flowering, at the beginning of fruit formation and at the end of summer for a juicy harvest.
- Top dressing. Fertilizing Japanese quince after planting is necessary three times a year. In early spring, nitrogen fertilizing is introduced, which stimulates the development of green mass, they can be scattered in the near-stem circle in a dry form. In the middle of summer and in autumn, potash and phosphorus minerals are added to the soil - 200-300 g per bucket of water.
- Pruning. Japanese quince develops rather slowly and does not require annual haircuts. For the first time, it is cut off only 5-6 years after planting; in early spring, old, diseased or thickening branches are removed. Subsequently, haircuts are carried out as needed, mainly paying attention to sanitary thinning.
Japanese quince has an average frost resistance, so it is imperative to cover it for the winter. Young plants are insulated with spruce branches, and in an adult chaenomeles, branches are bent to the ground and a dense but breathable fabric is thrown over the bush from above. Another method suggests wrapping large shoots in burlap before severe frosts and slightly pulling them to the trunk.
It is necessary to cover the quince on the crown without waiting for frost, especially if the plant is young
When and how to transplant Japanese quince
Japanese quince prefers to grow in one place and does not respond well to transplantation. But if the site was initially chosen poorly, or the soil on it has noticeably deteriorated over several years, it is still necessary to transfer the culture.
Planting in a new place is usually carried out in the fall in early or mid-September. The plant is dug out of the ground, if necessary, the diseased parts of the roots are removed and soaked in water for a couple of hours. Growth stimulants can be added to the liquid - Kornevin or Epin. After soaking, the seedling is transferred to a new site and rooted in the prepared hole according to the standard algorithm.
Advice! If the Japanese quince is quite old, you do not need to transplant it entirely. It is easier to separate several young and healthy shoots with their own roots.
Features of planting and caring for quince, depending on the region
With good care, planting of chaenomeles can be done in almost any region. But the agricultural technology of growing quince depends on the specifics of the climate.
Planting and caring for quince in the Urals
The Urals are characterized by hot summers, but they do not last long. Winter in the region is usually harsh. Japanese quince is planted only in spring, and closer to May, when the cold will finally recede.
When placing a chaenomeles on a site, a place is chosen for it that is securely closed from strong winds. With the onset of the autumn cold, the quince is carefully insulated - the trunk circle is mulched with a thick layer of peat about 10 cm and covered with spruce branches. Young low plants can be covered with burlap or lutrasil along the crown.
Planting and caring for Japanese quince in Siberia
Planting and caring for a quince tree in Siberia is associated with particular difficulties. It is not always possible to grow a thermophilic culture, it often freezes over the winter even if there is a good shelter. It is best to plant in a closed, heated greenhouse. In this case, chaenomeles will take root in a harsh climate and will bear fruit. Planting is recommended in the spring, since the autumn cold in Siberia comes early.
Growing quince in central Russia
In the temperate climate of the middle zone, most quince varieties feel pretty good. But before the spring planting, it is important to wait until the end of the return frosts. If autumn is expected to be warm, then chaenomeles can be rooted in September - before the onset of cold weather, it will have time to adapt.
At winter temperatures above -10 ° C, it is not necessary to cover the quince on the crown
For the winter, Japanese quince in the middle lane must be carefully insulated in the near-trunk circle. Young shoots and fruit buds freeze out at temperatures below -25 ° C, but the roots need protection even from light frosts.
Diseases and pests
It is not difficult to grow a quince in the country due to the fact that it has good immunity and rarely suffers from pests and fungi. Of the diseases that are dangerous for her:
- cytosporosis - the fungus first affects the bark, and then the living tissues of chaenomeles;
In case of cytosporosis, the quince shoots and trunk become covered with growths and dry out
- anthracnose - dark brown spots with whitish spore pads appear on the leaves.
When infected with anthracnose, Japanese quince leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely
At the first signs of fungal ailments, it is necessary to destroy all affected parts of the chaenomeles and treat it with Bordeaux liquid or Fundazol. Spraying is carried out according to the instructions, but is stopped three weeks before harvest.
Of insects for chaenomeles are dangerous:
- apple moth - insect larvae harm the fruit from the inside and eat away their pulp;
The quince struck by the moth early falls off the branches and seems to be prematurely ripe
- aphid - a small insect that feeds on leaf sap and can cause great damage to the green crown of chaenomeles.
When infested with aphids, the leaf plates become covered with a sticky bloom and curl up
If there are few insects on the quince, you can take a regular soap solution to eliminate the pests. In case of serious damage, sprays with Aktara, Karbofos and other acaricides are carried out several times per season in accordance with the instructions.
What plants are combined with and what can be planted
When planting and caring for Japanese henomeles quince, you need to carefully select neighbors for the plant. The culture develops well next to pears and apple trees; it can be placed in the immediate vicinity of hawthorn and barberry. But it is better not to plant quince next to roses, hydrangeas and grapes.
Attention! Chaenomeles belongs to the category of plants requiring pollination. For good yields, it is necessary to plant several shrubs of related varieties next to each other.
Planting a Japanese quince is a simple task, and caring for a plant requires adherence to basic rules. Principal attention should be paid to the soil and climate, since chaenomeles does not like alkaline soil and reacts poorly to cold weather.
Reviews on the cultivation of Japanese quince in the Urals
Romanova Olga Vadimovna, 45 years old, Kurgan
When planting Japanese quince, I feared that the shrub would not survive the winter; there is a lot of information on the Internet about low frost resistance.But with the warming of the roots and shelter along the crown, it was possible to calmly endure three cold seasons. True, the plant has not yet begun to bear fruit, and the growth of my chaenomeles is slightly lower than it should be - only about 70 cm.
Svetlyachkova Elena Dmitrievna, 43 years old, Yekaterinburg
I tried to plant Japanese quince several times, but only the third seedling successfully took root. The previous ones froze out, despite the insulation of the roots and branches, perhaps it was insufficient. Now my quince is five years old, growing on the western side of the site under the cover of a high wall. For the winter, I bend down the branches and cover the entire bush until the plant develops safely and bears fruit.