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Among many flower growers, especially beginners, there is still an opinion that such luxurious flowers as clematis can grow only in warm and mild climates. But over the past decades, this idea has been completely refuted by many courageous gardeners and summer residents, and in many parts of Western and Eastern Siberia now you can find exuberantly blooming walls and arches of these attractive flowers. Clematis in Siberia, an overview of the most resistant varieties, planting and care features of these difficult plants - all these are the topics of this article.
Variety of classifications
To date, there are about 300 natural species of clematis and several thousand varieties obtained in various ways over the past century. Such a variety could not but contribute to the emergence of various types of classifications, some of which are interesting, first of all, to botanists, while others are actively used by amateur gardeners.
The most modern international classification of clematis, adopted in 2001-2002, is based on the division of plants by flower size. Thus, clematis can be divided into small-flowered and large-flowered. The large-flowered group includes plants with a flower size of 8-10 to 22-29 cm. Small-flowered plants have a flower size of 1.5 to 12-18 cm.
Moreover, both of them can easily live and develop in the harsh conditions of Siberia.
Attention! Thus, the most reliable varieties of clematis for Siberia can be both large and profusely blooming at the same time.
Why does it depend on whether it is possible to grow this or that type of clematis in Siberia or not? For gardeners, the classification by the method of pruning clematis turned out to be more in demand, which, in turn, is determined by the methods and time of flowering of a particular variety.
Those clematis that are able to bloom profusely on the shoots of the current year, that is, emerging from the ground in early spring, are usually attributed to the third pruning group. Since they need time to develop from scratch to a flowering state, the flowering of these varieties usually occurs at a relatively late date - in July, August, in September, and its duration and intensity already depend on the specific variety of clematis. Double flowers are found in this group, but quite rarely.
But their shoots are almost completely cut off before winter, and only a small root zone is covered. Thus, the plants can easily tolerate frosts down to -40 ° -45 ° C and are the most suitable varieties for growing in the harsh conditions of Siberia.
The second group of pruning includes varieties of clematis, which bloom quite early (in May-June), often on the shoots of the last year, but can also bloom on a one-year growth, only at a later date. Naturally, it is impossible to cut such plants strongly in the fall - usually they are shortened only by a third - a quarter of the length of the shoots, rolled into rings and built special breathable shelters for them for the winter. In Siberia, this method of shelter may be insufficient, therefore, such varieties cannot be recommended for cultivation in areas with severe frosts. But often this group includes clematis with the most beautiful (including double-shaped) flowers. A way out was partly found in the fact that some varieties from this group are pruned as well as clematis of the 3rd group, and they still manage to please with their luxurious flowers only a few weeks later than usual. These clematis gardening practitioners are often referred to as a transitional 2-3 group, although officially they belong to the second pruning group.
Attention! Examples of the most popular of these varieties will be given below with their detailed description.
The first pruning group includes clematis, which bloom only on last year's shoots, and very rarely on new branches. These include mainly wild species of clematis and some cultural groups. These clematis are practically not pruned before winter, and, accordingly, do not cover. Most of these species and varieties of clematis are not suitable for cultivation in Siberia, but still there are several natural varieties that, according to experience, grow well and bloom even without shelter in the southern regions of Siberia - in the Irkutsk region, in Altai, in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Among the variety of classifications of clematis for a gardener, it may be interesting to divide these plants into:
- shrub with short lashes, up to 1.5-2 m
- curly with a length of shoots from 3 to 5 m.
The first variety is suitable for decorating small terraces and even for growing on balconies and in containers. With other varieties, you can twine both the gazebo, the wall of the house and the arch, up to two or three meters high.
Of course, it is interesting to grow clematis of different color shades and flower shapes on your site. All this information will be indicated in the description of the varieties, which you can find below. The best, most reliable and resistant varieties of clematis for Siberia are presented in the next chapter.
Descriptions of the most resistant varieties
Despite the abundance of foreign varieties of clematis on the market, old varieties bred in the countries of the former USSR are still very popular among gardeners. Therefore, it is wiser to start a review of the best clematis for Siberia with them. In order not to repeat itself, descriptions of varieties belonging exclusively to the third pruning group will be presented first, and the rest will be described separately.
Clematis with strong and powerful growth, with shoots reaching a length of 4-5 meters, are deservedly the most popular among florists.
The variety was bred in Crimea back in 1965. Belongs to the Zhakman group and blooms very abundantly (up to 30 flowers on each shoot) almost all summer on the shoots of the current year. Powerful shoots with a total of 15 to 30 pieces in a bush reach a length of 4 meters. The diameter of the flowers is about 12 cm. The color is dark cherry, velvety, but the color of the flowers fades towards the end of flowering.
One of the most famous and popular varieties, known since 1962, is named after the first clematis breeder in America. Liana with strong growth reaches a height of 4-5 meters, and its wide-open flowers are up to 20 cm in diameter. The shoot can have up to 12 purple-violet flowers with white-tomentose pubescence. In summer, in the heat, the color of the flowers may fade, but when the temperature drops, it becomes brighter again.
The variety is zoned throughout Russia and has been known since 1961. About 10 shoots per bush can reach every 4 m in length. Flowers with wide petals of a purple-blue hue, velvety, appear from July to November up to 15 pieces on the shoot.
One of the earliest varieties of the 3rd pruning group - it can bloom as early as June. The flowers are light lilac-pink in color and do not fade as they bloom.
The variety is of a shrub type, weakly adhering, the length of the shoots is up to 2.5 meters. But in one bush, up to 70 shoots can form. It blooms very profusely, (up to 30 flowers with a diameter of 10-13 cm can form on one shoot) and for a long time. The flowers slightly droop down, the petals are dense, fleshy, deep blue in color. Easily propagated by cuttings. The variety is zoned in all regions of Russia.
The variety, known since 1967, is named after the Soviet botanist N.I. Rubtsov. Forms a moderate number of shoots (up to 25 pieces per bush). Each shoot has up to 10 medium-sized reddish-lilac flowers (14 cm in diameter). The center of the flowers is lighter, the color fades in the sun.
Blooms in moderation throughout the summer.
The variety, known since 1961, named after an employee of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, belongs to the Integrifolia group. The shrub is weakly adhering, with shoots up to 2.5 m in length, of which up to 20 pieces are formed in one bush. The flowers are medium in size (12-14 cm) and have a smoky blue color. The flowering itself is not too abundant, but it is long-lasting - it can last from June to frost.
Liana with low vigor, reaches only 1.5-2 m in length. It is famous for its unusual color of flowers, where dark dots are scattered on a light lilac-blue background. Flowering lasts from mid-summer until the first frost.
Large-flowered, but at the same time resistant clematis of foreign selection are distinguished by a special richness of colors.
A variety with medium vigor, with a shoot length of up to 3 meters, originally from Poland. Light blue flowers with a wave along the edges of the petals are formed from July to late summer. Can be grown in containers and on balconies.
A popular variety of clematis with beautiful pinkish-lilac flowers that have a pearlescent hue. It blooms throughout the summer, sometimes it can be affected by fungal diseases. Forms many shoots up to 2.5 m long.
The name is translated from Estonian as home decoration. The purple-violet petals have a red stripe down the middle. Clematis blooms profusely from July to October.
The 1987 variety from Lithuania is named after the aircraft. Shoots are small, reaching a length of only 1.2-1.5 m. Flowers of the original two-color color 13-15 cm in diameter. Blooms in the second half of summer.
1975 variety originally from Poland. The flowers are quite large (up to 17 cm in diameter) formed from July to September on rather long clinging shoots (up to 2.5 m long). One of the darkest colored varieties - dark purple flowers with a red stripe.
It is considered one of the best among the abundant flowering varieties. Purple flowers hardly fade if clematis is planted in partial shade. Up to 15 shoots up to 3.5 m long are formed in the bush.
One of the most popular and most resistant varieties of clematis. The flowers have a velvety reddish-purple hue.
Ville do Lyon
One of the most beautiful varieties of foreign clematis, which is incredibly popular. It is also one of the oldest varieties - it has been known since 1899. The bush forms up to 15 shoots up to 3.5 meters long. Large flowers (up to 15 cm) of a lilac-reddish hue have darker edges, but fade over time. It blooms very profusely throughout the summer, but in unfavorable conditions of high humidity it can be affected by verticillary wilting. Although the average variety is very stable and winters well in Siberia.
An excellent popular variety of clematis known since 1870. It is characterized by great vigor of growth, shoots grow up to 4 meters and up to 20 of them are formed in each bush. Flowers with wide purple-lilac petals are directed to the sides and down. They tend to burn out. Blooms profusely in late summer - early autumn.
Purpurea Plena Elegance
According to the modern classification, this clematis belongs to small-flowered varieties (they reach 5-9 cm in diameter), but this does not in the least detract from its merits. Not only does it have no equal in terms of the abundance of flowering (up to 100 flowers can form on one shoot per season), it belongs to the 3rd group of pruning. And the flowers are terry, red-purple in color, blooming gradually, will fascinate any gardener. It blooms throughout the summer and in September. Up to 10 shoots 3-4 meters long are formed in the bush.
It should be noted that among the small-flowered clematis there are also many worthy varieties that can be grown in Siberia. Although they form very small flowers (3-8 cm in diameter), they can conquer anyone with the abundance and duration of flowering.
It is possible to note such varieties as:
- Alyonushka (lilac-pink)
- Riddle (blue-purple with white center)
- Blue rain (blue)
- Satellite (gray-blue)
- Huldin (white)
- Carmencita (red-purple)
- Cloud (dark purple)
All of these varieties can be cut completely before winter and will bloom on the shoots of the current year.
Varieties of transitional 2-3 groups of pruning
Among these clematis, there are both varieties of domestic and foreign origin.
A very popular and resistant variety with raspberry-red flowers 12-14 cm in diameter. Blooms from July until frost.
Ball of flowers
The large flowers of this variety (up to 20 cm in diameter) cover the shoots so abundantly during flowering that it helped to determine the name of the variety. Moreover, flowering begins in May-June on last year's shoots and ends by autumn on the shoots of this year. The flowers are bluish-lilac with a purple stripe. A variety of domestic origin, known since 1972.
John Paul II
A variety of clematis, originally from Poland, 1980, named after the Pope, who died in modern times. The color of the flowers is creamy white with a bright pink stripe in the middle. As the flower lasts, the stripe brightens and merges with the background of the petals.
Clematis variety of Dutch origin has densely double flowers, both on the shoots of the past and current seasons. Many other double varieties of clematis form double flowers only on last year's shoots. The petals are light lavender blue. Flowers of this variety prefer an exceptionally sunny location.
Another terry variety from Holland. Double flowers, on average, purple-blue, can change their color range depending on growing conditions.
Finally, there are several natural varieties of clematis that can be grown in Siberia.
It is one of the most decorative species of clematis in the wild. In culture, the species has been known since 1890. It can grow as a shrub up to half a meter high, and in the form of a liana, up to 3-4 meters long. It blooms on shoots of the current year, and up to 120 flowers can form on one shoot. The yellow flowers are directed downward in the form of small lanterns (up to 4 cm). Flowering continues from June until the first frost, sometimes in waves. Ripening silvery fruits give additional decorative effect to plants. It propagates well both by seeds and cuttings.
Straight (C. recta)
This clematis looks more like an erect shrub, individual shoots of which reach a length of 1-1.5 meters. Small white flowers look upwards and bloom in large numbers in June - July. Dying shoots before the onset of the ground are cut at soil level.
Planting and leaving
In principle, planting and caring for clematis in Siberia itself is not much different from similar actions in other regions. As you understand, the determining factor is pruning and covering the root zone of clematis for the winter. But it is necessary to understand that clematis are most afraid of not even frost, but of getting wet during the spring rains. Therefore, the most basic principles of planting and care should be taken into account so that these plants will delight you for many years. Indeed, every year, with proper care, the planted clematis bush grows and becomes not only more beautiful, but also more stable.
- Choose a sunny or semi-shaded place for planting (depending on the requirements of a particular variety), but with mandatory protection from the winds and with a low groundwater level. When planting clematis near the walls of buildings, it is necessary to retreat 50 cm and exclude water from the roof from entering the bushes.
- On heavy, clayey, acidic or poorly drained soils, a hole should be dug at least 60 cm deep and in diameter.Then fill it with a mixture of 50% compost, humus, 35% garden soil, 15% sand and a little lime and wood ash to eliminate stagnant water and facilitate the flow of air and nutrients to the roots. It is good to add about 200 grams of ready-made complex fertilizer, such as Kemir, to the soil mixture.
- It is best to make sure that the clematis planting site rises above the surrounding space by at least 5-10-15 cm. In this case, all heavy rainfall will be washed off and not stagnate in the root zone.
- Even before planting clematis, build reliable supports for them, but so that their thickness is no more than 2 cm, otherwise it will be difficult for plants to cling to them.
- Planting clematis in a permanent place both in Siberia and in other regions is best done in the spring, when a stable average daily above zero temperature is established.
- You can deepen the seedling during planting by no more than 7-12 cm than it grew before. It is better to mulch the soil abundantly with some organic material (sawdust, straw, compost) after planting.
- Clematis need regular and abundant watering - at least 1 time per week and intensive feeding. The latter are carried out with the help of organic or mineral fertilizers at least 3-4 times per season.
Before the onset of stable frosts, all shoots (or most of them, if you want to experiment) are cut at a level of 15-20 cm above ground level (3-4 lower buds should remain) and spud with humus to the same height. Then they are covered with spruce branches or oak leaves, and on top they are also covered with lutrasil, which is attached to the ground.
The video below well illustrates the main points of planting and caring for clematis in Siberia, and also demonstrates some of the most popular varieties:
Many clematis reproduce successfully by dividing the bush, cuttings and layering. The latter method is the easiest and allows you to get the largest number of seedlings with a minimum of effort. To do this, it is only necessary to dig in the growing shoot in spring in several places to the ground and over the summer it, receiving nutrients from the mother bush, will safely root.
Natural species of clematis reproduce quite easily by seeds. Planting clematis from seeds requires preliminary stratification of seeds at a temperature of + 15 ° + 16 ° C for 3 months. Germination can take anywhere from two weeks to two months. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place only when they are at least two years old.
Growing gorgeous clematis in Siberia is a snap if you choose the right varieties and ensure they are properly planted and cared for.