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The plant got its name from the American scientist, anatomy professor Casparo Wistar, who works at the University of Pennsylvania. In nature, wisteria are found in the forests of Sichuan and Hubei in China. Also widely distributed around the world as a plant actively used in decorative gardening, but more preferably refers to wet subtropics. In the CIS countries, wisteria is cultivated in the Crimea, in southern Russia, in the Northern Black Sea region. In the south of the USA, wisteria were acclimatized and feral. It is also often used as a houseplant in the form of a bonsai.
Varieties of wisteria
This genus includes 9 species of beautiful deciduous vines, of which in the south of Russia the following spread:
- Chinese Wisteria. This is a very beautiful, densely leafy liana, whose homeland is China. It reaches a height of 15-20 m, has unpaired leaves, light purple or white flowers, pubescent in youth, located on the hands. This type of wisteria is very fond of light, quite picky about the soil, preferring moist and fertile. It adapts well to urban conditions, and also suffers short-term temperature drops to -20 degrees. It grows rapidly, while spinning counterclockwise. Very often used in the south of Russia for vertical gardening. Known in culture since 1816.
This is one of the most beautiful vines in the flowering period. It also has decorative properties due to its feathery and very elegant foliage, which in the fall becomes golden yellow.
If the plant is systematically pruned, it can be grown in the form of a standard, erect, tree-like form, which is often used for single plantings on flower beds and lawns.
Wisteria seeds should be stored in a dry, unheated place in bags. Their similarity will remain for 3-4 years. Sowing of seeds is carried out in the fall after harvest or in the spring. Stratification is not needed.
- Wisteria is multi-flowered, or plentifully flowering. The birthplace of this type of wisteria is Japan. Lavishly flowering wisteria is very similar to the above species, differing from it by a smaller size (8-10 m) and slightly larger leaves, whose length reaches 40 cm and the number of leaves on them is 19. Also, this species has more flowers, and the size inflorescences equal to 50 cm. Flowers are purple-blue. With growth it twists clockwise.
This species is more resistant to winter cold and is considered more decorative. It is often used for vertical gardening, where beautiful leaves are needed in large quantities, as well as beautiful, bright flowering and attractive fruits.
Known in culture since the 19th century.
Seeds are also stored in unheated and dry places in paper bags. Similarity persists for 5-6 years.
It has several decorative forms:
- purple terry;
It is found in the gardens and parks of Crimea, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.
- Wisteria is also beautiful from Japan. It is a vine, reaching a height of about 10 m. Her leaves are folded, length - 10 cm, pubescent shoots. White flowers are collected in hanging brushes, the length of which is 15-20 cm. It has shapes with purple and double white flowers. The fruits of such wisteria ripen in November and are presented in the form of beans up to 20 cm long. It has been known in Russia since 1936, in Western Europe since the end of the 19th century.
You can meet in Adler, where it grows and the color is very plentiful and bright.
- Wisteria shrubby reaches 12 m in height and is known for its drooping branches, small purple-blue flowers. Occasionally found in culture in Crimea and Chisinau.
- Large-wisteria - close in its properties to the previous type of wisteria. It lives in North America, also found in Dushanbe, where it freezes occasionally. It differs in longer inflorescences.
- Japanese Wisteria. By name, it is clear that this plant came to us from Japan. It is famous for its snow-white flowers. Not as decorative as other species and much worse tolerates frosts.
Wisteria: planting and its features
Firstly, it should be borne in mind that wisteria is a plant loving heat. Therefore, if you are not a resident of the sunny Crimea or the Caucasus, or Transcarpathia, then you have to hide this "princess" for the winter, protecting it from freezing.
The main thing when planting wisteria is the correct selection of the place: a bright, sunny area, free from drafts with light, moist soils, rich in nutrients. If your soil cannot boast of fertility, then mix it with leaf humus, peat and a small amount of complex fertilizer.
In dry spring, it is necessary to water the land abundantly.
If the site of your choice is located near an arch, support or arbor, it is necessary to check the stability of the supports, since the plant is not so light.
The most suitable time for planting is spring.
Wisteria is planted in two ways:
- Layers in summer and spring. To do this, you need to choose the ripened annual shoots in 20-25 cm long. They should be rooted in the soil from humus, sand, peat and earth (1: 1: 1: 3). At the end of summer, cuttings are planted.
- The seeds. This method is more complicated. Seeds are planted in the calf in November-December or immediately in the ground in the spring. The soil should be loose, consist of leaf humus, turf, earth and sand (4: 1: 1). Crops are closed with a plastic bag or glass to maintain high humidity. After they are cleaned in a dark place. Shoots appear after 3-4 weeks, they are brought to light a little shading, and then, when 2 leaves appear, they dive. In the spring, when a small bush grew from seeds, a wisteria planted in a street greenhouse.
In terms of self-care, excellent wisteria is not so demanding. It is very important to remember that she does not like waterlogging of the soil and, if it is observed, can discard foliage and buds. On hot days, it should be watered abundantly, but so that the water does not stagnate near the roots. Useful spraying. At the beginning of the ripening of buds and during flowering should be watered once a week, while feeding with mineral fertilizers. Pruning occurs twice a season: in spring, when sick and old shoots are removed; the second - in the fall after the discharge of foliage. It is worth paying attention to this article.
Before the onset of winter cold weather, wisteria must be covered like climbing roses.
If the climate in your area does not allow you to grow wisteria on the site, then do not get upset. In this case, it can be planted in the form of a standard tree. In autumn, the plant is brought into the room (8-10 degrees) and watered quite sparingly. In spring, it is necessary to trim the side shoots to 2–3 of the buds to form a crown. In the summer, when warm time sets in, it can again be carried outside and watered abundantly. We recommend reading an article about an interesting plant - the highlander.